Tuesday, February 25, 2014

                                            Paper on Aromatic Rice in West Bengal, India

      *Paper published in the SATSA Mukhapatra, Annual Technical Issue, Seed Hope to Harvest, Feb        
                         2014, Vol 18, Kolkata pp 72-93, anupampaul99@gmail.com


Indigenous Aromatic Rice: Quality Seed Production and Area Expansion in West Bengal

M. Yadav1, A. Paul*2, K. Bhowmick1, B. Adhikari3, M. K. Bhowmick3and C. K. Santra3

1Directorate of Agriculture (Government of West Bengal), Jessop Building (1st Floor), 63 Netaji Subhas Road, Kolkata 700 001, West Bengal, India, E-mail: yadav.murari@yahoo.com, kamal.7kb@gmail.com;
2Agricultural Training Centre (Government of West Bengal), Fulia 741 402, Nadia, West Bengal, India, *E-mail: anupampaul99@gmail.com;
3Rice Research Station (Government of West Bengal), Chinsurah (R.S.) 712 102, Hooghly, West Bengal, India
(Received: October 30, 2013; Revised: January 25, 2014; Accepted: February 02, 2014).

Prior to Green Revolution, farmers were used to cultivate more than one indigenous rice variety in their fields to suit their land, choice of taste, value addition and cultural preferences. There were more than 100 indigenous aromatic rice varieties in different regions of undivided Bengal. Green Revolution with miracle seeds of high-yielding varieties and chemical intensive farming has been instrumental in eroding the huge rice genetic biodiversity including aromatic rice and it poses a serious concern for the farming community, environmentalists, scientists and the policy makers in West Bengal and India as well. However, at present only 12-15 indigenous aromatic rice varieties (IARVs) are being cultivated in some scattered pockets of different districts in West Bengal in an unorganized manner. Owing to its unique aroma, aromatic rice finds a ready market at local, national and international levels.But no major work in relation to conservation, characterization and publicity has so far been done in the state, barring a few sporadic attempts in the past. Therefore, considering the importance of the International Decade of Biodiversity (2011-2020) during the regime of WTO-TRIPS, these precious heirloom varieties need to be protected through ex situ conservation, purification, characterization and evaluation. One of the major initiatives in this direction is, therefore, to produce quality seed for expanding its area further in farmers’ fields towards ensuring remunerative rice farming in the state. This natural conservation is to be revalorized in the farmers’ fields by comparing the total productivity of modern variety with indigenous variety. It has been proved that greater the crop diversity, greater would be the food security. Along with this line, the Department of Agriculture, Government of West Bengal has initiated a novel programme in 2012 for purifying the seeds and expanding the area of the aromatic rice varieties like Gobindobhog, Badshabhog, Radhatilak and Tulaipanji in some selected districts of the state as a maiden project. Main thrusts are to show case the quality of the aromatic rice and to reduce the cost of cultivation by using more of organic matter for sustainable production. This would pave the way for organic certification and to have greater access to international and domestic markets.
Key words: Aromatic rice, Biodiversity, Conservation, Heirloom varieties, Organic  certification.

Aromatic rice assumes immense importance for their taste, aroma and higher market pricein comparison to good quality non-aromatic rice. Although globally popular aromatic rice varieties are mostly long-grained, majority of indigenous aromatic rice varieties (IARVs) in India are small andmedium-grained (Singh et al., 2000).The state of West Bengal(W.B.) had a rich source of small and medium grain IARVs with excellent grain quality parameters including aroma. Prior to Green Revolution, farmers used to cultivate different rice varieties in their fields and aromatic rice was one of them. An unofficial estimate showed that more than 70 aromatic varieties were in vogue in different agro-climatic zones of the state. Green Revolution is the major single factor for erosion of these heirloom varieties (Deb, 2005). The colossal loss of indigenous crop varieties has been a major concern for all national governments, international treaties, policy makers, institutions, ecologists and climatologists, and of late, for  the farmers. Deb (2005) in his famous book, entitled, “Seeds of Tradition, Seeds of Future” provided detailed morphologicaldescriptions of 416 Indian indigenous rice varieties.However, at present, only 12-15 IARVs arebeing cultivated in some scattered pockets of different districts in W.B.in an unorganized manner (Adhikari, 2012; Adhikariet al., 2011 and 2013). Owing to their uniqueness with respect to special traits like aroma, kernel elongation after cooking, fluffiness, taste, digestibility etc., the demand of IARVs is increasing gradually both in domestic and international markets.The recommendation of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Commerce during 2011 for the export of Gobindabhog and Tulaipanji from West Bengal has furtherreinforced the possibilities of harnessing export potentiality of these heirloom aromatic genotypes. But no major work has so far been done on these rice varieties in the state, excepting few sporadic attempts in the past.Therefore, top priority should be given on collection, purification, ex situ conservation, characterization, evaluation and documentation of these valuable IARVs of the state. It helps in maintaining the purity of the seed and quality rice production. In 2011, the State Department of Agriculture took an initiative for purifying the seeds of some scented rice varieties in farmers’ fields and in state run farms of Burdwan and Birbhum districts through a monitoring team constituted by the Directorate of Agriculture. Some selected farmers were given demonstration centres for seed production and area expansion of some selected aromatic rice varieties under the assistance of the Department. These farmers would give more emphasis to grow rice organically in near future in order to maintain soil fertility and sustainable production. It helps to fetch good market price and to harness export potential as well. Along with this line, the Department would consider organic certification of their produce through competent agencies. The chemical intensive agriculture has not only been expunged local crop genetic diversities, but also their wild relatives that are the only sources of unique genes for seed development, disease and insect pest resistance (Deb, 2005).In view of these, ex situ conservation is to be revalorized in the farmers’ fields by comparing the total productivity of modern variety versusindigenous variety. It has also been proved that greater the crop diversity, greater would be the food security (Querol, 1992; Deb, 2004a, 2004b and 2005; Mazaret al., 2007;Ushaet al.,2009; Paul, 2012). Change in climate with regard to delayed monsoon and scattered rainfall, rise in temperature etc. exertan adverse effect on crop cultivation,especially on the semi-aquatic crop like rice (Mishra, 2012). West Bengal is no exception. In many places, farmers are irrigating the kharif(aman) rice with ground water and the time of transplanting has receded in areas where the farmers are to depend on the arrival of monsoon rain. If the current weather aberration continues, farmers need to reorient their crop pattern by restricting rice in some areas (Basuet al.,2013).

Varietal Profile:
The cultivation of indigenous rice varieties including aromatic ones has been restricted to some farming families who give due importance to taste, environment and future food security. It has become their family tradition. For example, ShriSanatanMandal’s family of Ula village under Sankraril Block in Howrah (W.B.) has been cultivating Raniakanada variety since last 100 years and late BhagbatChakraborty of Layekbandh under Bishnupur Block in Bankura (W.B.) was cultivating Bakulful variety for 50 years without any grain yield reduction. Mainstream agriculture often fails to recognize them who are still conserving precious bio-resources. The reasons for continued cultivation of indigenous rice varieties are as follows (Deb, 1995; Rajukkannuet al., 2009):
a) The small and marginal farmers who grow the indigenous varieties are too impoverished to buy the costly inputs for growing high-yielding varieties (HYVs);
b) The HYVs often fail to grow in marginal lands like dry uplands,flood-prone areas, saline areas and wet lowlands, where a variety of specially adapted indigenous cultivars can grow;
c) Certain heirloom varieties have distinct cultural or religious significance and are in use during certain religious or social ceremonies;
d) Many heirloom varieties are grown for their special aroma and flavour, which are distinctly lacking in the HYVs;
e) There is no good marketing arrangement for these heirloom varieties;
f) The dwarf and poor quality straw of the HYV paddy is not ideally suitable for thatching huts and as cattle feed, which is beyond comparison with the straw of indigenous variety. Moreover, the cost of straw is three times higher than HYV straw.
There is a thrust for developing long grain Basmati rice and no comprehensive work for developing a data base of short grain aromatic cultivars has so far been done. The short grained aromatic cultivars have tremendous export possibility and it caters the domestic demand in the local markets as well as the markets of other states in the country. The cultivars viz. Randhunipagal in Red Lateritic Zone, khas (Gobindabhog / Badshabhog) in Central Alluvial Zone, Tulaipanji and Kalonunia in North Bengal etc. are well known varieties in the state. Apart from Deb’s work (Deb 2005) the Rice Research Station (RRS), Chinsurah (W.B.)has been maintaining andcharacterizingat least 35 IARVsthrough trials in different agro-climatic zones of the state since 2002. Among them, 14 varieties have been characterized and documented relating to agro-morphic, physico-chemical, milling and cooking quality traits. Likewise, 40 such IARVs are being maintained and characterized at Biodiversity Conservation Farm of Agricultural Training Centre (ATC), Fulia, Nadia (W.B.), and are being distributed among the farmers. Morphological characters, biochemical, DNA finger printing etc. are under way. Among them, Radhatilak is the most promising and it adapts itself in different agro-climatic zones.
Many of the IARVs have been found to possess excellent traits which can be transferred to HYVs with the help of modern tools of biotechnology like marker assisted breeding. To name a few, Seetabhog, a small-grained scented rice variety, elongates more than 100% after cooking; Badshabhog, Gobindabhog,Randhunipagaland Radhatilakretain their strong aroma in different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal; Kalojira retains its aroma even after prolonged storage while Tulaipanjihaving mild delicious fragrance is considered to be the best quality table rice. They have diversified end-uses like table-rice, special rice dish (Biriyani, Polao), puff rice, desert (Payesh) or fragrant sweet (Jaynagarermoyamade from puff rice of Kanakchur). As already mentioned, these varieties are of immense value in agriculture as they are treasure house of innumerable important genes and beyond any doubt,these local varieties which have sustained in a variety of agro-climatic conditions since thousands of years are better adapted as compared to HYVs (Mishra and Sinha, 2012). In the state, short- and medium-grainedIARVs like Badshabhog, Gobindabhog, Seetabhog, Randhunipagal, Radhatilak, Tulaipanji, Kalanunia etc. are presently grown during kharif (aman) season in more than one lakh hectare of land (i.e. about 3% of total amanrice area) with an annual production of more than 3 lakh tons.It is known that the best quality of aromatic rice is location specific. However, a list of IARVs (mostly of 140-155 days’ duration) with their native areas of cultivation in W.B. is given in Table 1.

Table 1. Indigenous aromatic rice varieties and their native areas of cultivation in West Bengal
Variety/Land race
Native areas of cultivation
Burdwan (Raina 1, Raina 2, Khandoghosh, Bhatar), Arambagh (Hooghly), Bankura, Contai (PurbaMedinipore), Srikrishnapur (PaschimMedinipore)
Parts of North Bengal
Medinipore, Nadia
Basmati Aman
Medinipore / Dinajpur
Chhotomollakhali (South 24 Parganas)
Cooch Behar
Uttar Dinajpur (Raiganj)
Parts of South 24 Parganas (Gosaba)
Parts of Bankura (Panchal, Indus-Patrasayer)
Medinipore, Birbhum (Ubli and Dweranda)
Dehradoon Scent
Birbhum, Medinipore
Parts of 24 Parganas
Pockets of South 24 Parganas (Khakrakona), Parts of North Bengal, Khordonahala
Hooghly, Howrah, Nadia (Karimpur), North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas (Khakrakona), Burdwan (Raina 1, Raina 2, Khandoghosh, Kalna) Pathankhali,
Parts of South 24 Parganas
Parts of South 24 Parganas (Gosaba)
Foothills of Duars: Jalpaiguri (Churabhander, Mohitnagar), Cooch Behar (Mathabhanga)
Cooch Behar
Parts of North Bengal (Jalpaiguri)
Parts of 24 Parganas (Pathankhali)
Parts of 24 Parganas (Joynagar-Mojilpur, Gosaba)
West Cooch Behar
Uttar and DakshinDinajpur (Balurghat and Kumarganj)
Bankura, Burdwan, Hooghly
Birbhum, BurdwanSiura, Chakerpur
Parts of Purulia (Kadamara, Chorpahari),
South 24 Parganas (Chotomollakhali)
Local Basmati
Bankura and other red lateritic areas
Parts of Bankura (Badurdara)
Parts of 24 Parganas, Nadia
Purulia, Bankura, Parts of North Bengal
NC 324
Gangetic alluvial zone, Lateritic tract
NC 365
Lateritic tract
South 24 Parganas (Chotomollakhali)
Pipar Bas
Purulia (Dumdumi)
Darjeeling, Kalimpong
Birbhum, Bankura, Purulia, Burdwan, Hooghly Gopalnagar, Dweranda
Jalpaiguri, Cooch Behar
Cooch Behar
Cooch Behar
Uttar and DakshinDinajpur (Balurghat and Kumarganj), Burdwan, Bankura (Ranibandh)
Uttar Dinajpur (Kaliaganj, Raiganj and Hemtabad)
Uttar Dinajpur, Purulia (Rampur)
Source: Adhikariet al. (2011),Rohillaet al. (2000), Mallik and Roy (2013)

Land Suitability:
Most of the IARVs grow well in medium lands. The varieties like Kaminibhog, Lalabati, etc. can tolerate more than 1 foot of water and quite resistant to late transplanting in deep water. Except Tulaipanji of Uttar Dinajpur, almost all the scented varieties of West Bengal adapt themselves with different agro-climatic zones. The varieties (Kalonunia, Kaltura) grown in acidic soil of Cooch Behar, Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling districts thrive well in neutral soil as is found in the fields of ATC, Fulia. The grain shape changes with the type of soils like clay, loam, etc. They require little amount of nutrients unlike modern HYVs. Aromatic rice varieties grow well in the soils with almost zero input in Sundarban areas where silts deposited by rivers and rivulets give significant growth. Assured irrigation and drainage help in quality seed production (Singh, 2000). Generally lighter soils and upland conditions favour the aroma formation. It shows excessive abdominal whiteness in grains affecting cooking qualities if grown in alkaline soil with poor soil moisture during grain fillingstage (Azeez and Shafi, 1966; Rohillaet al., 2000). Aromatic rice should preferably be cultivated in fields where any legume crop is an essential component either before or after rice crop. Apart from Gobindobhog and Badshabhog,Lalbadshabhog and Radhatilak give good results in a wide variety of soils.

Climatic Requirement:
Quality traits are known to be influenced by temperature, particularly at the time of flowering, grain filling and maturity. Synthesis of aromatic compounds and their retention in grain is better at lower temperature during grain filling stage (Singh et al., 2003) whereas high temperature at this stage adversely affects various quality attributes.Meng and Zhou (1997) observed that the mean daily temperature of 18°C produced best quality rice.Late planting, coinciding with the flowering and maturity in cooler days, has been reported to enhance grain quality along with reduction in grain yield (Rohillaet al., 2000; Singh et al., 2003). For producing high quality aromatic rice, the lower temperatures during the season are not only important, but also the differences between the daily maximum and minimum temperatures, particularly during flowering time are important (Singh and Singh, 2003).

Agronomic Management:
Better crop management ensures higher seed yield with enhanced quality.Timely field operations help in proper utilization of inputs. Healthy nursery, number of seedlings hill-1, properspacing, depth of transplanting,timely transplanting and harvesting are crucial to good productivity and quality of aromatic rice.
Seed rate:The seed rate may vary due to test weight and quality of seed, andheavy seeds ensure healthy, sturdy and uniform seedlings.Normally a seed rate of 20-25 kg ha-1 is recommendedfor conventional transplanting with 3-4 seedlings hill-1. However, 10 kg of seed is needed for covering a hectare of land by following single plant transplanting method, which is good for growth and greater biomass.
Seed treatment:Genetically pure, free from weed seed, healthy and truthfully labeled seed is to be procured from authentic sources. Before sowing, seed lot is to be dipped in saline water solution (165 g common salt in a litre of water) for 10 minutes and 2 litres of such solution would be required for 1.0 kg of seed. Floating chaffy seeds are to be discarded and heavier seeds which settle at the bottom need to be selected. Seeds are to be taken out from the salt solution and washed thrice in plain water. Thereafter, seeds are to be soaked overnight in 1 litre of raw cattle urine, followed by draining the urine and keeping the seeds in a gunny bag in moist condition for germination. The practice has been followed since 2002 at ATC,Fulia. Folk seeds are resistant to diseases and insect pests. Seeds may also be treated with Trichodermaviride.
Planting time:Time of planting plays a pivotal role in producing higher seed yield and quality. Under South Bengal condition, seed sowing should be completed during middle to end of June, and transplanting of 25-30 days’ old seedlings should be done within middle to end of July in order to have better aroma as well as yield. In North Bengal, seeds are generally late sown in the month of July and transplanting is completed within middle of August (Adhikariet al., 2013; Naybanet al., 2012). In general, optimum time of transplanting is first to third week of July in West Bengal. Longer stay ofseedlings in nursery bed should be avoided to escape node formation which reduces tillering and ultimately results in poor yields (Sardana, 2003).As the rainfall pattern is receding towards the end of July, the farmers are to transplant late in W.B. Moreover, in many parts of the state, kharif(aman) rice needs irrigation using underground water. Because, transplanting time does not match with the onset of monsoon. Flash flood often destroys initially transplanted crop in Sundarban areas. Therefore, farmers are to transplant aged seedlings (40-45 days) singly with a wider spacing of 12// x 12// along with the separated tillers as already developed in seed bed. Delayed transplanting under water logged condition has been proved to be beneficial as it gives rise to 20-25 tillers and subsequently good grain and straw yields.  
Nursery raising:An area of one-tenth of the main field is enough to raise healthy seedlings. The field should be ploughed twice or thrice under dry condition along with incorporation of 500 kg well decomposed farm yard manure (FYM) in an area of l000 m2. Thorough puddling should be done, followed by leveling. Thereafter, the field is to be divided in convenient size of beds to have a better control on irrigation and drainage. Sprouted seeds are to be broadcasted uniformly in each bed. The beds are to be kept wet and water should not be allowed to stagnate during the day time to avoid injury to the germinating seeds and tender young seedlings. Irrigation is to be preferably given in evening to avoid any damage from standing water in day time as water gets heated up in noon hours. Hand weeding should be given at 10 days after sowing (DAS). Prior to transplanting in main field, seedling root dipping is to be done in Azospirillum (1.5 kg ha-1) solution for 30 minutes. Seedlings can also be raised with minimum cost and labour.A nursery bed of 320 sqft.area may be divided into eight plots so that each plot has an area of 40 sqft. (4 ft x 10 ft) and each one is to be demarcated with mud bund without any ploughing.After through moistening, each bed is to be layered with vermicompost or cattle manure of one and half inch thickness. Sprouted seeds weighing 1.25 kg areto be sprinkled over each plot, followed by covering the seeds with wood ash to protect them from birds. Seedlingshaving 2-3 leaves become ready in about 12 days for single plant transplanting with thin layer of water or with adequate soil moisture. However; aged seedlings (30-40 days’ old) can be transplanted singly under water logged condition( Kharif) as practiced in Sundarban areas and in Goalpara village of Santipur Block in Nadia district (W.B.) during boroseason.
Mainfield preparation:Main field should be prepared with the use of green manure and the green manure crop should be trampled at 10 days prior to transplanting to allow proper decomposition. Azolla can be released to grow in the field having shallow water. Other details are discussed hereunder.
Crop establishment methods:
Normal transplanting:Two-three seedlings of 25-30 days’ old (with 4-5 leaves) are to be transplanted in each hill at a spacing of 20 cm × 20 cm (8// x 8//) and depth of 2-3 cm. But the spacing of 25 cm x 25 cm in case of traditional tall varieties and 15 cm x 15 cm in case of semi-dwarf varieties should be followed. The gaps should be filled up as early as possible (within a week) wherever seedlings have died. Wide spacing of 25 cm x 25 cm is needed for single plant transplanting as followed in system of rice intensification (SRI).
Double transplanting: Double transplanting is a traditional practice, locally known as “Charat”, “Guchhibhengeroa” (means transplanting by separating the hills), “Roabhanga” (means separating the tillers of the hills) in Gangetic plains of W.B., “Bolan” in North 24 Parganas or “Bagrashi” in red and lateritic areas of the state and the practice is reported to enhance the yield, aroma, taste and fluffiness. It is generally practiced as contingent planning to mitigate natural calamities like drought and flood, or in dearth of quality seeds. In this practice, the nursery is raised in the first week of June with a normal seed rate in high land in wet bed condition, locally referred to as Beejtala’(seedbed), from where seedlings are uprooted after 25-30 DAS and transplanted densely (15 cm x 15 cm) with 12-14 seedlings hill-1 in the first high land field, known as Prathamroakhet’(first transplanted field). After another 30-35 days of first transplanting, the seedlings from Prathamroakhet are uprooted and the second transplanting is done at a spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm with 2-3 seedlings hill-1 in the main field, locally known as Dwitiyaroakhet’(second transplanted field) or ‘Mulroakhet’(main transplanted field) (Adhikariet al., 2011; Ram et al., 2009). Nursery seedlings from onecuttah area are initially transplanted in 3 cuttah (one cuttah=720sq ft) area and seedlings of 3cuttah area are re-transplanted in 24 cuttah of main field. Sometimes, the tillers are also separated and used for planting. Double transplanting reduces plant height (by about 15-20 cm) at maturity and improves plant vigor and culm strength, enabling plants to combat lodging problem without substantial damage (Rohillaet al., 2000).
System of rice intensification: Higher yields with the use of fewer inputs including seeds can be obtained under SRI in medium to upland areas having proper drainage facilities. In this method, careful transplanting of young seedlings (8-10 days’ old at 2-3 leaf stage) singly at shallow depth and wider spacing (25 cm x 25 cm) is advocated. Young seedlings thrive well in shallow water level.
Direct seeding: Some reports show that there is better aroma in direct-sown crop than in transplanted ones. Owing to paucity of labour, plastic drum seeder can be used for seeding pre-germinated seeds on puddled soil in main field under medium and upland situations; but sowing should be completed before onset of monsoonin areas where monsoon is well defined and predictable.
Nutrient management:
Organic practice: In general, 5 t farm yard manure (FYM) ha-1, 2.5-3.0 t vermicompost ha-1, green manuring / green leaf manuring with dhaincha(Sesbaniaaculeata), 10 kg blue green algae (BGA) ha-1 or 5 t Azolla ha-1 should be applied / incorporated as organic manures in main field (Bhowmick and Dhara, 2010a). For growing rice organically, green manuring or Azolla incorporation prior to puddling is an important practice. It is to be followed by incorporation of twigs of GlyricidiaorCleistanthuscollinus (a tree found in PaschimMedinipur and Purulia districts) as green leaf manure at the time of initial land preparation. Application of FYM at recommended dose along with mustard cake / neem cake @ 90 kg ha-1, rock phosphate @ 150 kg ha-1, N-fixing bacteria (Azospirillum) @ 5.0 kg ha-1 and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) @ 3.5-5.0 kg ha-1, 30 kg molasses, 30 kg rice dust are to be applied at the  time of initial land preparation. Besides, liquid manure is to be applied thrice in main field. Rock phosphate and PSB may be discontinued after two years. This practice has been followed at the ATC, Fulia for last 11 years. At present, the centre has stopped using any organic matter or liquid manure in the field because of huge build up of microbial population and organic carbon. It only releases azollain the main field at 20 DAT. It suppresses growth of associated plants (weeds) and encourages crop growth. It has been reported that lower amount of phosphate and potash does not affect the indigenous crop provided the soil has substantial organic carbon and colony forming units of bacteria, fungi and saprozoic nematodes (Paul, 2011).
Preparation of liquid manure: In a shady place, three earthen pots having capacity of 40 litres each are to be placed inside the soil, keeping the rim out of ground level. Then, 2.0 kg cow dung, 4.0 litres of cattle urine, 200 g shredded leaves (each of Adhotavosoka,Vitexnegunda, Anonasquamosa and Clerodendronsp.), 200 g sour curd, 200 g molasses and 200 g pulse flour are to be added in each pot. It has to be stirred twice every day. After about 20 days when the odour becomes less, the entire amount taken out of one earthen pot may be applied in 1.0 bigha (1.0 ha =7.5 bighas) just during final land preparation before transplanting. The liquid manure prepared in another two pots is to be applied at 20 and 40 DAT. If the initial organic matter is less (half), then the required amount of liquid manure is to be applied for 6 times in order to compensate the organic matter requirement. Liquid manure can also be sprayed after 21 DAT to enhance plant growth and ward off insect pests and diseases. ATC, Fulia has been applying the liquid manure for the last 10 years and it gives pest and disease free plant growth (Paul, 2009). It reduces cost of production substantially. Depending on plant growth, soil and environment, vermicompost at 375-750 kg ha-1 or neem cake at 150 kg ha-1 may also be top dressed.
Application of chemical fertilizers: Usually IARVs are not suitable to accept chemical fertilizers although farmers are using for getting more grain yield. It was observed that chemical fertilizers could reduce plant’s resistance to disease and pest as evident in some parts of Burdwan district where monoculture of Gobindobhog and Badshabhog goes on with chemical fertilizers. This is not quite common in South and North 24 Parganas and other districts of the state. However, the recommended fertilizer doses for soils having low, medium and high fertility status are 50:25:25, 40:20:20 and 30:15:15 kg of N:P2O5:K2O ha-1, of which one-fourth of total N, full dose of P2O5 and three-fourth of total K2O is to be applied as basal, half of total N at active tillering (21 DAT) as first top dressing and the rest one-fourth N and one-fourth K2O at panicle initiation (42 DAT) as second top dressing. There should not be any standing water in the field at the time of fertilizer application; otherwise, it should be drained out. Irrigation should be given at least 24 h after top dressing. Along with this, adequate amount of organic matter should be incorporated. If organic manures are adequately used, about 25% of recommended fertilizer dose can be curtailed.
            Beyond the recommended N-dose, excess application of nitrogenous fertilizers may cause more vegetative growth and taller plants, making the crop more prone to lodging that adversely affects yield along with inferior cooking and eatingqualities. But potassium fertilizers favourably influence cooking and eating qualities ofaromatic rice. Application of P2O5 at higher rate may produce lower quality grain.
            Zinc application favourably influences the rice grain quality parameters. Foliar spray of 0.5% ZnSO4.7H2O + 0.25% lime solution can be done twice – the first one with 375 l solution ha-1 at 25-30 DAT and the second one with 750 l solution ha-1 at 45-50 DAT (Bhowmick and Dhara, 2010b). Borax (10.5% B) should be applied at 10 kg ha-1 for terai, Gangetic alluvium and red lateritic soils, whereas dolomite at 1-2 t ha-1 once in three years for hill and terai soils, and gypsum at 3 q ha-1 for coastal soils should be added.Moderate application of sulphur to a deficient soil increased aroma, softness,whiteness, stickiness and glossiness of boiled rice. Generally, 20 kg S ha-1is recommended as basal application. Alternatively, single super phosphate (16% P2O5, 12.5% S and 19.5% Ca) should be used as phosphatic fertilizer which also contains S (Bhowmick and Dhara, 2010b).
Intercultural operations: To ensurea good plant population, the missing hills should be filled within a week after transplanting, but not late as this can cause non-uniformity in maturity time and thus, contaminate the seeds. Any extra plants / stand above the number recommended should be thinned or removed at two weeks after sowing to reduce plant competition for light, nutrients and water (Aseaet al., 2010). Cutting of the upper portion of leaf blades of top 5-6 leaves by 10-15 cm for tall varieties (pruning or lopping) at 45-55 DAT is suggested to reduce stem borer problem as well as to prevent lodging without adversely affecting the grain quality and yield (Angrish, 1991; Sardana, 2003).
Water management:Continuous submergence of 3-4 cm water for a week from 3 DAT helps in the establishment of seedlings and development of better root system, besides controlling weeds. Later on, irrigation may be applied on alternate days or one day after the disappearance of ponded water. In caseof limitedsupply of irrigation water, the fieldmay be kept saturated only by repeated irrigations. The crop should not suffer from any waterstress, particularly during tillering and anthesis stages.Water stress at the first stage diminishes tillering, whereas the process of fertilization is affected at the second stage, which ultimately curtails the size of the sink. Irrigation may be stopped about a fortnight before harvesting of the crop. Draining the field makes the crop mature faster and helps to achieve uniform maturity in the crop. Even diminishing soil moisture at the time of grain filling is reported to favour the aroma formation (Rohillaet al., 2000).
Weed management:So far as quality seed production is concerned,weed management both in nursery and main field are equally important. Water level should be maintained to avoid weeds in nursery bed. For main field, continuous 3-4 cm standing water for a week from 3 DAT and two rounds of hand weeding at 20 and 40 DATcan check the weed problem in case of conventional transplanting, whereas in SRI, use of cono / rotary weeder for mechanical incorporation of weeds for 3-4 times at 10 days interval starting from 10-15 DAT is recommended. Initial weeding and incorporation in the rice field is necessary to delay further weed growth. In any case, weeds should never be allowed to produce seeds in rice field.Keeping Azolla in the main field suppresses weed growth. At least 3 weedings are important to have good crop.
Field inspection and roguing:Roguing is the removal of undesirable plants from seed production plots and it can be done at any time of the crop stage. They may be volunteer plants from earlier crop or off-types. Being a self-pollinated crop, genetic purity of rice varieties can be maintained by removing the off-types detected in the field. Regular field inspections are critical to identify off-types and to remove them before they contaminate the seed production plots. Field inspections should be conducted at vegetative, flowering, pre-harvest, and harvest stages. The volunteer paddy plants emerging from the shattered grains of the previous crop have to be removed as and when they are noticed in the field. By regular field visits, the plant growth and development should be followed while attempting to make visual comparison of varietal characteristics. Field should be inspected by walking in the field in a clockwise direction to identify and count off-types and diseased plants in a strip of 1 m x 25 m. Diseased plants and off-types observed in the field are to be pulled out. Each strip should be finished at a time before going to next strip (Aseaet al., 2010). All abnormal plants are to be removed from the field. The characteristics being helpful to differentiate one variety from the other and also to identify the off-types in a population of a genetically pure variety are: plant type, growth duration, vigor, height, tillering habit (compact / spreading), leaf characteristics (narrow / broad, erect / droopy, long / short), pigmentation, panicle type (open / lax), spikelet size and shape, stigma and apiculous pigmentation, presence of awn, hull color, grain size and shape, and pericarp color (red / white).Standards for off-types (0.05 and 0.20%) and objectionable weeds (0.01 and 0.02%) like wild rice (Oryza sativa L. var. fatuaPrain) (Syn. O. sativa L.f. spontaneaRosch.) should be maintained, considering maximum permissible limit for foundation and certified seed, respectively, at the time of final inspection (Trivedi and Gunasekaran, 2013). The most important stages for rouging are at maximum tillering, at flowering and just before harvest.
Plant protection:It has already been mentioned that IARVs are not easily affected by diseases and insect pests. Depending on the climatic conditions, traditional as well as semi-dwarf HYVs suffer from various insect pests and diseases. Necessary prophylactic measures, balanced nutrition and clean cultivation can help reduce losses (Singh, 2000). Among the insect pests, yellow stem borer (Scirpophagaincertulas), leaf folder (Cnaphalocrosismedinalis) and brown plant hopper (Nilaparvatalugens), gundhi bug (Leptocorisaspp.) and gall midge (Orseoliaoryzae) affect the crop to varying degrees. Pheromone traps with 5 mg lure may be installed at one week after sowing in nursery (2 traps ha-1) and at 20 DAT in main field (5-8 traps ha-1 for pest monitoring and 20 traps ha-1for mass trapping) to control yellow stem borer male moths (Kattiet al., 2009).Chinsurah light trap or any other light trap with 200 watts mercury lamps for 2 h can also be used in the evening. Inundative release of egg parasitoid TrichogrammajaponicumandT. chilonis @ 1,00,000 adults ha-1 at 10 days interval for 5-6 times starting from 15 DAT or the day of pest appearance in evening hours for controlling yellow stem borer and leaf folder, respectively(Anon., 2003; Kattiet al., 2009). The egg cards (Tricho cards) containing 1,000 parasitized eggs are to be stapled to the underside of the leaves at 100 points ha-1 uniformly distributed across the field. Infestation of insects and diseases becomes less in SRI and double transplanting methodsof rice cultivation. Application of conventional pesticides is not necessary if the farmers follow organic farming schedules (Paul, 2009).
                  Major diseases are bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonascampestrispv.oryzae), sheath rot (Sarocladiumoryzae), sheath blight (Rhizoctoniasolani), brown spot (Helminthosporiumoryzae) and false smut (Ustilaginoideavirens) which not only reduce the grain yield, but also severely impair the seed quality. Trichodermaviride3.0 g l-1 can be sprayed for 2-3 times starting from 20 DAT at an interval of 15 days to prevent different diseases. Otherwise, chemical measures need to be taken. However, blast (Pyriculariaoryzae) is not very common and many IARVs like Kalonunia etc. are resistant to it.
Harvesting and threshing:Ascertaining optimum harvest time is very essential. Harvesting should be done when the panicles are nearly ripe (about 70% grains mature) and the straw has just turned yellow (Dhimanet al., 2003). Delayed harvesting leads to over ripening, grain shedding / shattering and fissure formation in rice.Early harvesting also leads to grain yieldlosses due to higher percentage of under-developed green kernels andlow head rice recovery (HRR). Maximum grain yield and HRR areassured by harvesting the crop at 35 days after 50% flowering whenmoisture content ranges from 20 to 22% (ChaudharyandIqbal, 1986).The harvested cropshouldpreferablybethreshedonthesameornextdayofharvesting. Harvesting should be done from the middle of the field for seed purpose. Seeds of border areas are to be discarded so as avoid contamination or cross pollination. Delayed threshing leads to high shattering losses and reduced HRR. Theproduceshouldbedriedand cleaned properly. Drying helps seeds maintain their ability to germinate and their vigor for a longer period. Drying also controls mold growth and the activity of other organisms that reduce the quality of stored grain. Drying reduces seed discoloration, which lowers the market value of the seed. Seeds can be safely stored when they have been dried to a moisture content of 13%.
Area Expansion under Aromatic Rice:
Farmers are traditionally using their own-saved seeds for aromatic rice cultivation in small pockets in a scattered way. Some of them are also quite aware of the importance of quality seeds and they do select good seeds from their field for planting in the next season. But most of them put emphasis on yield rather than quality. Other than the current initiative taken by the Department of Agriculture, Government of W.B. under the aegis of RastriyaKrishiVikashYojana (RKVY), there was no such organized effort for seed production and area expansion of aromatic rice earlier in the state. Seed production and area expansion  programme for some particular aromatic rice varieties (Gobindabhog, Badshabhog, Seetabhog,Radhatilak and Tulaipanji) was taken up in kharif(2012) at Government Farms like RRS (Chinsurah, Hooghly), ATC (Fulia) and Block Seed Farm (Raiganj, Uttar Dinajpur), and selected farmers’ fields of some selected districts. Farmers of some particular districts (Uttar Dinajpur, Burdwan, Hooghly and North 24 Parganas) having experience in aromatic rice cultivation were involved in the programme for producing truthfully labeled(TL) pure seeds under the supervision of Seed Certification Experts of the State Seed Certification Agency. Approximately 725 ha of aromatic rice were monitored by the Department of Agriculture in different districts of the state. An attempt was taken in kharif(2012) for bringing an additional area of 525 ha (approx.) under aromatic rice cultivation.In kharif (2013), area under aromatic rice has been expanded to 2,000ha area, other than seed production in 50 ha of land.Subsequently, more areas would come under aromatic rice.
However, the likely obstacles for expansion of area under IARVs are: (a) non-availability of quality seed, (b) weak marketing network, (c) lack of variety-specific husking facility in production domains, and (d) lack of organized promotional activity on a broader perspective.

Production Economics:
Grain yields of most of the HYVs are declining in many regions throughout the country including W.B. For example, the average grain yield of MTU 7029 (Swarna), the most popular HYV in the state, has plummeted from 5.00 t ha-1 to about 3.75 t ha-1 over the years in most of the farmers' fields. Declining productivity is due to law of diminishing return, imbalance in plant nutrients and soil organic matter, etc. Farmers are applying more chemical fertilizers and other agricultural inputs for augmenting the yield; it ultimately leads to increasing cost of production without any profitable return (Table 2). Consequent upon gradual escalation in the price of critical inputs due to increasing cost of petroleum products along with rising wages of hired labour, the cost involved in the production of HYVs is leaping up day by day while the market price of high-yielding paddy is not increasing at a proportionate rate. In fact, HYVs cannot give substantial yields under all the marginal conditions in farmers’ fields. Furthermore, no HYV can be grown in marginal land like salt-affected, flood-prone and drought-prone areas. On the other hand, IARVs have the abilities to maintain soil health, give sustainable yields and fetch more profit using less input, as their cost of production under either organic (Table 3) or good management practice (Table 4) is low. ATC, Fulia (organic farm) has been conducting   extensive trials on comparative study of chemical and organic practices of nutrient management in rice during kharif season for the last couple of years. It was found that the scented variety ‘Radhatilak’ fetched more price than non-scented HYVs.

Table 2. Comparative profit statement for cultivation of non-aromatic (HYV) and traditional aromatic rice varieties in West Bengal
Selling price (Rs. unit-1)
Selling price (Rs. unit-1)
Rice yield
2.50 t
1.9 t
Straw yield
12 kahan
14 kahan



Table 3. Estimated input package for organic cultivation of traditional aromatic rice varieties
Quantity required ha-1
Price rate
Cost involved (Rs. ha-1)
Seed (Gobindabhog, Radhatilak, Tulaipanji, etc.) for single plant transplanting
14 kg
30.00 kg-1
N-fixing bio-fertilizer (Azospirillum)
5 kg
60.00 kg-1
Phosphate solubilizing bacteria
2 kg
60.00 kg-1
Rock phosphate (25% of total P2O5 requirement)
40 kg
7.00 kg-1
Earthen jar for liquid manure
15 nos.
200.00 for each
Molasses (To increase soil bacteria)
30 kg
40.00 kg-1
Rice bran ash (source of organic matter and K)
1 t
200.00 t-1
FYM/ cattle manure
1 t
3000.00 t-1
Green manuring seed
30 kg
60.00 kg-1

Table 4. Estimated input package for cultivation of traditional aromatic rice varieties with good management practices
Quantity required (Kg ha-1)
Price rate
(Rs. kg-1)
Cost involved (Rs. ha-1)
Seed (Gobindabhog, Radhatilak, Tulaipanji, etc.) for single plant transplanting
Rock phosphate  (25% of total P2O5 requirement)
Micronutrient:          ZnSO4.7H2O*
N-fixing bio-fertilizer (Azospirillum)
Phosphate solubilizing bacteria
Vermicompost  (25% of the total requirement)
Green manuring seed
*ZnSO4.7H2O to be applied in Zn-deficient soil (based on soil test)

Marketing and Trade:
Present marketing scenario of aromatic rice in W.B.reveals that producers, in most cases, sell aromatic paddy in bulk immediately after harvesting or in piecemeal from their household storage. In a few cases,they process the produce with or without parboiling, depending on varieties and consumers’ choice. It is primarily due to their immediate financial need. Even variety-specific husking facilities are not available in all the production domains of different IARVs. Rural assemblers having disguised unemployment, mostly belonging to farming community by tradition, play the role of processor. They receive credit from the commission agents and function as small paddy processors or household level paddy processing units. Some progressive mill owners of mini rice mills (only for husking of aromatic paddy) purchase the produce directly or through agents from the producers.
Estimated aromatic paddy producers’ share in consumers’ price in the state is not more than 40-55%. In case of value addition, which includes processing and husking operation as well as packaging, it would be more than 70%. For this, no special skill development is needed as traditionally they possess it.
The farmers targeted for the support to be extended in respect of organic production of aromatic rice may be identified as individual or activity cluster to receive marketing support. Again, zone- or district-specific marketing consortia are required to be formed involving the individuals and/or activity clusters as well as Agricultural Marketing personnel responsible for procurement and other marketing activities. Each individual and/or activity clusters may be provided with a small packaging machine, packaging material and weighing machine. The consortium will arrange procurement, labeling, storage and distribution of these retail packs to Cooperation Department managed ‘Samabayikas’ and other outlets even in other states.PaschimbangaAgri-Marketing Corporation Limited may be declared as nodal agency for such marketing activities and the packaged produce may be marketed by the corporation on “no profit, no loss” basis.  
Marketing of organic produce is possible through organic certification and it fetches premium price. The producers would get organic certification provided they adopt organic cultivation continuously for a minimum of 3 years. Aromatic rice deserves special significance in terms of safe food and as the remunerative crop for resource-poor farmers. Its demand in domestic and in the international is on the increase.

Way Forward:
Most of the farmers in the state still continue to cultivate the chemical intensive HYVs,because they lack alternate remunerative crops, suitable indigenous folk rice varieties and traditional knowledge that existed before. Being a surplus state in rice production, there exist a scope for diversion of surplus kharif (aman) rice area under the HYVs towards more remunerative aromatic and fine rice counterparts. For this, it is necessary to remove the social, financial, ecological and knowledge constraints faced by the farmers. Community participation for cultivation under both organic and eco-friendly practices needs to be encouraged to get better impact. Critical inputs may be provided amongst the farmers free of cost for adoption of organic (Table 3) / improved eco-friendly practices (Table 4).The target area of aromatic rice production under organic management both for seed and grain purpose may be fixed as a minimum of 30 ha in each district under the Seed / Compact Village programme in the state. The produce (organic rice seed) should be conserved at local government farms or seed centres and shared with the local farmers, whereas the excess amount can be marketed by the participating farmers.
Seeds of traditional aromatic rice varieties can be used for years together (unlike HYVs), even for 1000 years (for example, Basmati rice), provided the seed conservation technique is properly maintained (Paul, 2012). Within few years, these precious varieties would go extinct if proper care for their conservation is not taken up and obviously no scientists in the world would bring them back.
Research and extension for IARVs having market potentiality should be taken into consideration and their inherent qualities may be exploited for value addition to high-yielders.Pragmatic research endeavor and organized promotional activity not only helps in saving these precious indigenous genotypes from extinction, but also boosts the possibilities of accessing global market.

Since IARVs are well adapted to marginal lands requiring fewer inputs, it leaves an opportunity to reintroduce the folk rice and aromatic rice varieties, in particular, for sustainable production with minimum cost of cultivation. Many farmers have resorted to using organic matter for sustainable crop production. They need to be encouraged through different schemes. Mass awareness is needed in relation to health and environmental hazards of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Remunerative price is a very deciding factor in this globalized world. But due importance is to be given on exsitu and insitu crop conservation as the folk crops contain valuable traits to be used for reintroduction and breeding at the time of environmental catastrophes as encountered after AILA in W.B. In consistence with the UN declaration of Decade of Biodiversity (2011-2020) in the regime of WTO-TRIPS, farmers are to be sensitized and encouraged to diversify their crop varieties for the future food security. Certified organic produce finds a ready demand in the international market. Farmers themselves are to be self-sufficient in seeds. They are to be encouraged to grow and to maintain purity of the seeds to increase their productivity levels. Without quality seeds, the output would be very less despite huge expenditure on other agricultural inputs.Pure seed is, therefore, a must for increasing productivity and quality of aromatic rice. Consumers are becoming aware of organically produced crops and the state policy may be reshaped to uphold the bright future of aromatic rice varieties of W.B.

Adhikari, B. 2012.Puranoseidhanerkatha - Jai na je sab bhola. Leaflet (in Bengali) published in the 19th West Bengal State Science and Technology Congress, Mar. 01-02, 2012, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal.

Adhikari, B., Bhowmick, M. K. and Bhadra, K. K. 2013.Sugandhidhanerchas, adhik laver aswas(in Bengali). Saar Samachar51(1): 22-28.

Adhikari, B., Bhowmick, M. K., Halder, A. and De, S. 2011. Paschimbangeamanmorsumeysugandhidhanerchas(in Bengali). Saar Samachar49 (2): 33-39.

Angrish, R. 1991. Effect of foliage pruning on lodging and yield of Basmati 370 rice.Indian J. Plant Physiology34: 271-273.

Anonymous.2003. Integrated Pest Management Package for Rice. Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage, Faridabad, India.

Asea, G., Onaga, G., Phiri, N. A. and Karanja, D. K. 2010. Quality Rice Seed Production Manual.Published by National Crops Resources Research Institute, Kampala, Uganda and CABI Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.75 pages.

Azeez, M. A. and Shafi, M. 1966. Quality in rice.Technical Bulletin No. 13.Department ofAgriculture, West Pakistan, Government of West Pakistan.p. 50.

Basu, R, N., Mandal, A.K. and Roy, S. 2013. Current global agricultural scenario and projected climate change impacts on food security in the late twenty first century. Indian Biologist45(1): 1-89.

Bhowmick, M. K. and Dhara, M. C. 2010a.Paschimbangedhanutpadaneysusanghatasaarbyabasthapana(in Bengali). Saar Samachar48 (2), July-Sept.: 17-20.

Bhowmick, M. K. and Dhara, M. C. 2010b.Paschimbangedhanutpadaneysusanghatasaarbyabasthapana(in Bengali). Saar Samachar48 (3), Oct.-Dec.: 27-31.

Chaudhary, A. M. and Iqbal, M. S. 1986. Production technology of Basmati rice.Prog.Farming.6: 17-25.

Deb, D. 1995. Sustainable agriculture and folk rice varieties: ecological, economic and cultural aspects. Mimeo.WWF India Eastern Region. Calcutta.

Deb, D. 2004a.Beyond developmentality constructing inclusive freedom and sustainability.Danish Books, New Delhi.

Deb, D. 2004b.Industrial vs. Ecological Agriculture, RFSTE, New Delhi.

Deb, D. 2005. Seeds of Tradition, Seeds of Future.Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology (RFSTE/ Vrihi). New Delhi.

Katti, G., Padmavathi, C., Shanker, C., Padmakumari, A. P., Jhansilakshmi, V., KondalaRao, Y., Prasad, J. S., Krishnaiah, N. V.andPasalu, I. C. 2009. Field management of insect pests of rice – A ready reckoner.Technical Bulletin No. 46.Directorate of Rice Research (ICAR), Rajendranagar 500030, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.38 pp.

Mallik, S. and Roy, T. K. 2003.The scope of cultivation of aromatic rice in West Bengal. (in)A treatise on the scented rices of India (Singh, R. K. and Singh, U. S., eds.).Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. p. 434-446.

Mazar, F., Buckles, D., Satheesh, P. V. and Akhtar, F. 2007. Food sovereignty and uncultivated biodiversity in South Asia. Academic Foundation, New Delhi in association with International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.

Meng, Y. and Zhou, Z. 1997. Relationship between rice grain quality and temperature during the seed setting period.Chinese J. Rice Sci. 11: 51-54.
Mishra, P. K. and Sinha, A. K. 2012.Rice diversity in Bankura district of West Bengal (India).Bioscience Discovery3(3):284-287.

Mishra, S. 2012. Weather Woes.West BengalLIV (7), July, 2012, Kolkata. pp. 21-28.

Nayban, G., Baidya, D. and Roysharma, J. 2012. Sugandhidhan – Unnatachaspadhyati. Leaflet (in Bengali) published by Department of Agriculture, Government of West Bengal, Kolkata.

Paul, A. 2009.Kamkharachedhanutpadanbarate o dharabahikphalanerjanyaesecheekkalichararoponpadhyati (in Bengali).Basundhara, Department of Agriculture, Govt. of West Bengal, Mahakaran, Kolkata, AsharSrabanSankhya (1415 in Bengali). pp. 30-32.

Paul, A. 2011.Comparative study of chemical and organic inputs for sustainable production of folk and modern varieties of rice.Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Nadia.

Paul, A. 2012. Indigenous Rice: Ignored in Conventional Agriculture, Crop Culture: Biotechnology Biodiversity, Centre for Advanced Research and Education (CARE), Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), Kolkata. pp. 29-38.

Querol, D. 1992. Genetic resources - Our forgotten treasure, technical and socio-economical approaches. Third World Network, Penag.

Rajukkannu, K., Sathya A. and Quintal, O. 2009: The diversity of traditional rice varieties in India – A focus on Tamil Nadu. PANAP Rice Sheets.Pesticide Action Network Asia and the Pacific (PANAP), Penang, Malaysia.12 pp.

Ram, P. C., Mazid, M. A., Ismail, A. M., Singh, P. N., Singh, V. N., Haque, M. A., Singh, U., Ella, E. S. and Singh, B. B. 2009. Crop and resource management in flood-prone areas: Farmers’ strategies and research development. (in) Proceedings Natural Resource Management for Poverty Reduction and Environmental Sustainability in Fragile Rice-based Systems (Haefele, S. M. and Ismail, A. M., eds.), International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. pp. 82-94.

Rohilla, R., Singh, V. P., Singh, U. S., Singh, R. K.and Khush, G. S. 2000. Crop husbandry andenvironmental factors affecting aroma and other quality traits. (in)Aromatic Rice (Singh, R. K., Singh. U. S. and Khush, G. S., eds.). Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. p. 201-216.

Sardana, V. 2003.Agronomic requirements for higher yield and superior quality of basmati.Indian Farmers’ Digest36(6): 19-22.

Singh, A. N. and Singh, V. P. 2003. Extent, distribution and growing environments of aromatic rices in India. (in) )A treatise on the scented rices of India (Singh, R. K. and Singh, U. S., eds.).Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. p. 211-229.

Singh, R. K., Singh, U. S., Khush, G. S., Rohilla, R., Singh, J. P., Singh, G.and Shekhar, K. S. 2000. Small and medium grained aromatic rices of India. (in)Aromatic Rice (Singh, R. K., Singh. U. S. and Khush, G. S., eds.). Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. p. 155-177.

Singh, U. S., Rohilla, R., Srivastava, P. C., Singh, N. and Singh, R. K. 2003. Environmental factors affecting aroma and other quality traits. (in)A treatise on the scented rices of India (Singh, R. K. and Singh, U. S., eds.).Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. p. 143-164.

Singh, V. P. 2000.The basmatirice of India.(in)Aromatic Rice (Singh, R. K., Singh. U. S. and Khush, G. S., eds.). Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. p. 135-154.

Trivedi, R. K. and Gunasekaran, M. 2013. Indian Minimum Seed Certification Standards.The Central Seed Certification Board, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi.pp. 605.

Usha, S., Sridhar, R., Karsten, W. and Sreedevi, L. 2009. Denatured rice and threatened nutritional security. Paddy No. 5, Oct. 2009, Thiruvanathapuram.